Takayama was born to a family of sericulture farmers in 1830 in Takayama, Joshu Province (now Takayama, Fujioka City, Gunma Prefecture). His brother, Kuzo Kimura, was 15 years his younger. Both became interested in sericulture at a young age, and in order to create good-quality cocoons, Chogoro established the seion-iku sericulture method that balances ventilation, and humidity, and temperature control.
He also founded the sericulture association Takayama-sha with branch schools centered within Gunma Prefecture, and it became known as “a mecca for sericulture in Japan.” As a sericulture educational institution, it also guided youngsters not only from Japan but from overseas as well.
The Takayama-sha Sericulture School was registered as a World Heritage Site together with Tomioka Silk Mill.